By P. Bradshaw
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This ebook is meant as a textbook for the senior-level introductory direction in hydraulic engineering required in such a lot civil engineering curricula, yet is acceptable for agricultural engineering scholars and others attracted to the topic of hydraulics. this article presents complete therapy of hydraulic engineering in either closed conduit and open channel move, with examples and difficulties.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Turbulence and its Measurement
For instance, the main contributions to the energy may be spread over a range of length scales of much more than 10: 1, with the position of L in this range depending strongly on the type of flow considered, and obviously even the dissipating eddies contain some energy: by "energy-containing" and "dissipating" ranges of eddy size we mean those that contain most of the energy or effect most of the dissipation. Order-of-magnitude arguments are often very useful in turbulence and are just as reliable as exact analyses for the purposes for which 40 TURBULENCE AND ITS MEASUREMENT they are intended: one is much more likely to suffer trouble from inaccurate physical premises than from inexact order-of-magnitude analyses.
Its unsteadiness would not show up in mean measurements. The flow round the end of the step is quite complicated, and near-steady trailing vortices can be seen : they come from the mean vorticity of the jet about an axis parallel to the step. This vorticity is stretched, and turned towards the direction of motion, as the flow rounds the corner. This mean vortex stretching accounts for the great complication of three-dimensional flows, whether laminar or turbulent. Between them, these simple experiments demonstrate most of the qualitative features of turbulence described in this book.
It next will be right To describe each particular batch: Distinguishing those that have feathers, and bite, From those that have whiskers, and scratch. THE examples given in this chapter, ranked in order of increasing complication, are mainly idealized flows: the real turbulent flows found in nature or industry may be more complicated, but they can often be treated as combinations or distortions of ideal flows (if they cannot be so treated neither mathematics nor experiment is likely to achieve results of general use in the immediate future).
An Introduction to Turbulence and its Measurement by P. Bradshaw