Adaptive antennas : concepts and performance by R. T. Compton PDF

By R. T. Compton

ISBN-10: 0130041513

ISBN-13: 9780130041517

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Yet, “all” Ergodic processes are considered weakly stationary. Orders of ergodicity can also be established. First-order ergodicity requires that all first-order statistics have equal ensemble and time series values. The same is true for second-order and weak-sense ergodicity. For most analyses techniques, weak-sense ergodicity is sufficient. It should be noted that only Stationary Random Processes can be classified as either being Ergodic or being Nonergodic. In addition, if the signal (random process) is Ergodic, then the signal is also considered to be Stationary in the Weak Sense.

15). 2 Block Floating Point Format Another format is the block floating point format where a single exponent is used for a block of fixed points. Most ADC produce fixed point numbers. Some ADC contain analog prescaling that allows sample values to be output in floating point or block floating point. Some ADC encode as differential encoding. The output is not the absolute value of the sample but rather the difference between successive sample values can be represented with fewer bits. 5 SIGNAL RECONSTRUCTION—DIGITAL-TOANALOG CONVERSION (DAC) Two steps, which are the reverse of Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC), are required to reconstruct the analog signal from digitized data.

A binary sequence of length n can represent at most 2n different numbers: that is, a 4-bit register can represent 24 or 16 numbers from 0 to 15 inclusively. cls T1: IML March 3, 2006 11:13 SIGNAL PROCESSING OF RANDOM PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNALS the interval can be divided at most into 2n discrete numbers. 9) The size of the quantization step (E0 ) or aperture introduces an amplitude approximation which limits the potential accuracy of the subsequent processing. 10) A change in the least significant bit will cause a step from one level to the next.

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Adaptive antennas : concepts and performance by R. T. Compton


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