By Whitaker, Jerry C
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Additional resources for AC power systems
24. 5 Power Generation Any ac power system begins with a generating source. Electric generators are devices that convert energy from a mechanical form into an electrical form. This process, known as electromechanical energy conversion, involves magnetic fields that act as an intermediate medium. The input to the generating machine can be derived from a number of energy sources. For example, in the generation of large-scale electric power, coal can produce steam that drives the shaft of the machine.
1999 CRC Press LLC It is possible to build a machine with p poles, where p = 4, 6, 8, . . (even numbers). 29. For the specified direction of the (dc) current in the rotor windings, the rotor field has two pairs of north and south poles, arranged as shown. The emf induced in a stator winding completes one period for every pair of north and south poles sweeping by; thus, each revolution of the rotor corresponds to two periods of the stator emf. If the machine is to operate at 60 Hz, then the rotor needs to rotate at 1800 rpm.
These two elements are intimately related because the amount of heat that the core and conductors generate determines the longevity of the insulation; the insulation itself—whether solid, liquid, or gas—serves to carry off some portion of the heat produced. Temperatures inside a commercial transformer may reach 100°C, the boiling point of water. Under such conditions, deterioration of insulating materials can limit the useful lifetime of the device. Although oils are inexpensive and effective as insulators and coolants, some oils are flammable, making them unacceptable for units placed inside buildings.
AC power systems by Whitaker, Jerry C